Reworking of soil or other sediment by a living organism such as a worm.


Any animal that lives in or on sediments – that digs or burrows or simply moves across the surface – will create some kind of disturbance in those sediments.
In the broadest sense, any kind of sediment disturbance is bioturbation. Often, however, the term is employed more restrictively to refer to the disruption of fine sedimentary layering by digging organisms.

root traces

Palaeosol with traces of roots from the Maurine Red Marl Formation at Arques



For further information:An Introduction to Ichnology, The Study of Plant and Animal Traces, by Anthony J. Martin, Department of Environmental Studies, Emory University



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